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Arts & Letters Daily

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Adverbs Level II

Adverbs

Notes

Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Adverbs usually answer the questions when, where, how, in what manner, or to what extent or degree.
Forming adverbs
The form of adverbs can change to show the degree to which a certain quality is present. There are three degrees of comparison: positive, comparative, and superlative. The positive form is the root word (e.g., fast). The comparative degree shows a comparison between two things or people (e.g., faster). The superlative degree shows the greatest or least degree of the quality (e.g., fastest).

Most adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding ‘ly’ to the adjective form.
Example: The serious business of finance is not for me. (‘Serious’ is an adjective modifying the noun ‘business’.)

Example: I worked seriously on the project. (‘Seriously’ is an adverb modifying’ the verb ‘worked’. ‘Seriously’ explains how the work was done.)

Example: Mary walks quickly. (The adverb ‘quickly’ tells how Mary walks.)

Some adverbs do not end in ‘ly’. They include the following:

  • accordingly furthermore meanwhile similarly
  • also hence moreover still
  • anyway however nevertheless then
  • besides incidentally next thereafter
  • certainly indeed nonetheless therefore
  • consequently instead now thus
  • finally likewise otherwise undoubtedly

Some adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms.

Positive Comparative Superlative
well better best
little less least
good beter best
bad worse worst
many more most

Many adverbs that indicate time, place, condition, cause or degree are not derived from other parts of speech. Adverbs in this category include:
Example: Please set up the table now. (The adverb ‘now’ tells when to set up the table.)
Example: Place the table over there. (The adverb ‘there’ tells where to move the table.)

Some adverbs do not have a comparative or superlative form

Example: when, where, and why, whence, whereby, wherein, and whereupon

Some adverbs are derived from prepositions.
Example: I travel around. (The adverb ‘around’ tells ‘where’ I travel.)
Example: John woke up. (The adverb ‘up’ tells ‘how’ John woke.)

Some adverbs must be placed immediately before the words they modify.
Example: He almost always comes late. (The adverb ‘almost’ modifies the adverb ‘always’.)

Example: Jane only eats vegetables. (The adverb ‘only’ modifies the verb ‘eats’.)

Example: They even work on Sunday. (The adverb ‘even’ modifies the verb ‘work’.)

Example: Mother hardly ever leaves her home. (The adverb ‘hardly’ modifies the adverb ‘ever’.)

Example: There is scarcely any food in the market. (The adverb ‘scarcely’ modifies the
adjective ‘any’.)

Adverbs modify verbs
Example: Jane only eats vegetables. (The adverb ‘only’ modifies the verb ‘eats’)

Adverbs modify adverbs
Example: He almost always comes late. (The adverb ‘almost’ modifies the adverb ‘always’.)

Adverbs modify adjectives
Example: There is scarcely any food in the market. (The adverb ‘scarcely’ modifies the adjective ‘any’.)

Assignment

Write the adverbs in the left column and the verb/adverb/adjective they modify in the right column.

1. Increasingly, man has invaded the wilderness.

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

2. On the Arctic coast, the temperature rises rapidly in summer.

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

3. In Antarctica, the soil never thaws because there is not enough heat.

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

4. How far have we walked along the creak bed?

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

5. I spotted the lively ground squirrel rather easily.

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

6. Musk oxen usually inhabit the tundra for the whole year.

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

7. Musk oxen are related closely to goats.

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

8. He waited  for the seriously wounded deer to come out of the bush.

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

9. The badly wounded deer was limping noticeably.

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

10. As they attack the herd, predators always face the fiercely dangerous bulls.

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

11. Bull musk oxen charge at each other with great speed and often are injured .

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

12. Seldom will you see a bull moose act cowardly.

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

13. Wild animals work hard to protect themselves from potentially dangerous predators.

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

14. Hopelessly inefficient old traps always injure and maim trapped animals.

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

15. John very often tries to release trapped animals.

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

16. When were seals placed on the endangered species list?

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

17. How many animals are on the seriously endangered list?

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

18. The price we pay when animals become extinct is too high.

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

19. It was not known if the moose was wounded critically.

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

20. Potentially, it is dangerous to investigate a badly injured moose.

Adverb Verb/adverb/adjective modified

Answer Key

Adverbs

1.  Increasingly, man has invaded the wilderness.

Answer: Adverb – increasingly         Verb- has invaded

2. On the Arctic coast, the temperature  rises rapidly in summer.

Answer: Adverb – rapidly                   Verb-rises

3. In Antarctica, the soil never thaws because there is not enough heat.

Answer: Adverb – never                     Verb- thaws

Adverb – not                         Adjective-enough

4. How far have we walked along the creak bed?

Answer: Adverb – how                       Adverb- far

Adverb – far                          Verb- walked

5. I spotted the lively ground squirrel rather easily.

Answer: Adverb – rather                    Adverb- easily

Adverb – easily                    Verb- spotted

6. Musk oxen usually inhabit the tundra for the whole year.

Answer: Adverb – usually                  Verb- inhabit

7. Musk oxen are related closely to goats.

Adverb – closely                                  Verb- related

8. He waited  for the seriously wounded deer to come out of the bush.

Answer: Adverb – seriously               Adjective- wounded

9. The badly wounded deer was limping noticeably.

Answer: Adverb – badly                      Adjective- wounded

Adverb –noticeably             Verb- was  limping

10. Predators always face the fiercely dangerous bulls as they attack the herd.

Answer: Adverb – always                  Verb-face

Adverb – fiercely                 Adjective-dangerous

11. Bull musk oxen charge at each other with great speed and often are injured .

Answer: Adverb – often                      Verb- injured

12. Seldom will you see a bull moose act cowardly.

Answer: Adverb – seldom                 Verb- see

Adverb – cowardly              Verb- act

13. Wild animals work hard to protect themselves from potentially dangerous predators.

Answer: Adverb – hard                       Verb-work

Adverb – potentially            Adjective-dangerous

14. Hopelessly inefficient old traps always injure and maim trapped animals.

Answer: Adverb – hopelessly            Adjective-inefficient

Adverb – always                   Verb-injure and maim

15. John very often tries to release trapped animals.

Answer: Adverb – very                       Adverb- often

Adverb – often                     Verb- tries

16. When were seals placed on the endangered species list?

Answer: Adverb – when                     Verb-placed

17. How many animals are on the seriously endangered list?

Answer: Adverb –how                        Adjective- many

Adverb – seriously              Adjective –  endangered

18. The price we pay when animals become extinct is too high.

Answer: Adverb – too                         Adjective-high

19. It was not known if the moose was wounded critically.

Answer: Adverb – not                         Verb- known

Adverb – critically                                Verb- wounded

20. Potentially, it is dangerous to investigate a badly injured moose.

Answer: Adverb – potentially            Adjective- dangerous

Adverb – badly                     Adjective-injured