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Clauses: Independent and Dependent Clauses - Level III

Independent and Dependent Clauses

Notes

Clauses
A clause is a group of words that includes a subject and a predicate.
Example:
Jim graduated from college with honors. (The subject ‘Jim’ is followed by the predicate, ‘graduated from college with honors’.)

  • Independent Clause
    An independent clause may stand alone as a sentence. Every sentence must have one or more independent clauses. If it does not have an independent clause, it is a sentence fragment.
    Example:
    Even though Sally had to look after her parents, she also graduated from college with honors. (The independent clause is ‘she also graduated from college with honors’.)
  • Dependent Clause
    A dependent clause must always be accompanied by an independent clause. A sentence may have one or more dependent clauses.
    Example:
    Even though Sally had to look after her parents, she also graduated from college with honors. (The dependent clause is ‘Even though Sally had to look after her parents’.)

–       Adjective Clause
An adjective clause modifies a noun or pronoun. Adjective clauses are introduced by relative pronouns. (see list under Conjunctions and Relative Pronouns.)
Example:
Bill prefers the courses which prepare him for a career in teaching senior high. (Adjective clause: ‘which prepare him for a career in teaching senior high’. ‘Which’ is the relative pronoun.)

–       Adverb Clause
An adverb clause modifies a verb, adverb or adjective. Adverb clauses are introduced with adverbs.
Example:
Although Jack spent weeks in hospital, he still passed every course. (Adverb clause: ‘Although Jack spent weeks in hospital’. ‘Although’ is the adverb.

–       Noun Cause
A noun clause acts as a noun and therefore can be a subject, object or predicate noun. (See the list below for relative pronouns and subordinating conjunctions that introduce noun clauses.)
Example:
Whether I can pass the TOEFL test will determine my future educational opportunities. (‘Whether I can pass the TOEFL test’ is a noun clause serving as the subject of the sentence. ‘Whether’ is the subordinating conjunction.)

Assignment

Identify the parts of speech in each clause and write them in the appropriate columns.

1. In 2003, the new Honda Civic will be powered by gasoline and electricity.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

2. We will reply to your email within 24 hours.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

3. All vehicles are equipped with telephones that enable drivers to announce their arrival.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

4. We accept cash in U.S. dollars because we serve many international clients.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

5. Bicycle Safety Programs provide information and resources which are designed to improve pedestrian and cyclist safety.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

6. People need regular exercise because it improves their quality of life.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

7. During the last decade, over 63,000 pedestrians died and over a million others were injured in pedestrian-vehicle crashes.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

8. As drivers, we are not always aware of pedestrians because our vision is blocked.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

9. Parents buckle up their children in car seats because they are concerned about the safety of their children.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

10. Child safety seats are 70 percent effective in preventing deaths and serious injuries.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

11. Cars and trucks, which are powered by both electric motors and gasoline engines, represent the new wave.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

12. We transfer goods to and from all London Airports at a low quoted price because we offer total quality service.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

13. You will be met inside the airport terminal by our driver who will hold a sign with your name written on it.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

14. That will be acceptable to us.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

15. We will not debate the facts because that is not our function.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

16. David’s parents, who were born in Poland, speak little English.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

17. Whether your flight arrives early or late, there will be a driver waiting to meet you.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

18. As part of its investigation into certain accidents, the Safety Board may hold public hearings.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

19. The noise really bothered me.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

20. Federal and state officials who represent the truck and bus industry are expected to testify.

Subject Verb Object Predicate Noun Predicate Adjective

Answer Key

Independent and Dependent Clauses

1. In 2003, the new Honda Civic will be powered by gasoline and electricity.

Answer – Subject – Honda Civic

Verb – will be powered

Object –

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –

2. We will reply to your email within 24 hours.

Answer –  Subject – We

Verb –will reply

Object –

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –

3. All vehicles are equipped with telephones that enable drivers to announce their arrival.

Answer –  Subject – vehicles,           that

Verb – are equipped           enable

Object –                                 drivers

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –

4. We accept cash in U.S. dollars because we serve many international clients.

Answer – Subject – We                      we

Verb – accept                       serve

Object – cash                       clients

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –

5. Bicycle Safety Programs provide information and resources which are designed to improve pedestrian and cyclist safety.

Answer –  Subject – Bicycle Safety Programs               which

Verb – provide                     are designed

Object – information, resources

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –

6. People need regular exercise because it improves their quality of life.

Answer – Subject – People               it

Verb – need                          improves

Object – exercise                 quality

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –

7. During the last decade, over 63,000 pedestrians died and over a million others were injured in pedestrian-vehicle crashes.

Answer –   Subject – pedestrians     others

Verb – died                           were injured

Object –

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –

8. As drivers, we are not always aware of pedestrians because our vision is blocked.

Answer –  Subject –we                        vision

Verb – are                             is blocked

Object –

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective – aware

9. Parents buckle up their children in car seats because they are concerned about the safety of their children.

Answer –    Subject – Parents            they

Verb – buckle                       are

Object – children

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –           concerned

10. Child safety seats are 70 percent effective in preventing deaths and serious injuries.

Answer – Subject – seats

Verb – are

Object – effective

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –

11. Cars and trucks, which are powered by both electric motors and gasoline engines, represent the new wave.

Answer – Subject – Cars, trucks, which

Verb – represent are powered

Object – wave

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –

12. We transfer goods to and from all London Airports at a low quoted price because we offer total quality service.

Answer –    Subject – We                    we

Verb – transfer                     offer

Object – goods                                     services

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –

13. You will be met inside the airport terminal by our driver who will hold a sign with your name written upon it.

Answer – Subject – You                      who

Verb – will be met                               will hold

Object –                                 sign

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –

14. That will be acceptable to us.

Answer –    Subject – That

Verb – will be

Object –

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective – acceptable

15. We will not debate the facts because that is not our function.

Answer – Subject – We                       that

Verb – will debate                               is

Object – facts

Predicate noun –                                                 function

Predicate adjective –

16. David’s parents, who were born in Poland, speak little English.

Answer –     Subject – parents                           who

Verb – speak                        were born

Object – English

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –

17. Whether your flight arrives early or late, there will be a driver waiting to meet you.

Answer –  Subject –

Verb – flight                                          driver

Object – arrives                    will be

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –

18. As part of its investigation into certain accidents, the Safety Board may hold public hearings.

Answer – Subject – Safety Board

Verb –hold

Object – hearings

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –

19. The noise really bothered me.

Answer –    Subject – noise

Verb – bothers

Object – me

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –

20. Federal and state officials who represent the truck and bus industry are expected to testify.

Answer –  Subject – officials                              who

Verb – are expected                           represent

Object –                                                 industry

Predicate noun –

Predicate adjective –