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Arts & Letters Daily

QuickBooks

Kinds of Clauses

Kinds of Clauses

Notes

Clauses
A clause is a group of words that includes a subject and a predicate.
Example:
Jim graduated from college with honors. (The subject ‘Jim’ is followed by the predicate, ‘graduated from college with honors’.)

  • Independent Clause
    An independent clause may stand alone as a sentence. Every sentence must have one or more independent clauses. If it does not have an independent clause, it is a sentence fragment.
    Example:
    Even though Sally had to look after her parents, she also graduated from college with honors. (The independent clause is ‘she also graduated from college with honors’.)
  • Dependent Clause
    A dependent clause must always be accompanied by an independent clause. A sentence may have one or more dependent clauses.
    Example:
    Even though Sally had to look after her parents, she also graduated from college with honors. (The dependent clause is ‘Even though Sally had to look after her parents’.)

–       Adjective Clause
An adjective clause modifies a noun or pronoun. Adjective clauses are introduced by relative pronouns. (see list under Conjunctions and Relative Pronouns.)
Example:
Bill prefers the courses which prepare him for a career in teaching senior high. (Adjective clause: ‘which prepare him for a career in teaching senior high’. ‘Which’ is the relative pronoun.)

–       Adverb Clause
An adverb clause modifies a verb, adverb or adjective. Adverb clauses are introduced with adverbs.
Example:
Although Jack spent weeks in hospital, he still passed every course. (Adverb clause: ‘Although Jack spent weeks in hospital’. ‘Although’ is the adverb.

Noun Cause
A noun clause acts as a noun and therefore can be a subject, object or predicate noun. (See the list below for relative pronouns and subordinating conjunctions that introduce noun clauses.)
Example:
Whether I can pass the TOEFL test will determine my future educational opportunities. (‘Whether I can pass the TOEFL test’ is a noun clause serving as the subject of the sentence. ‘Whether’ is the subordinating conjunction.)
Conjunctions and Relative Pronouns

Assignment

Identify each clause in the following sentences. Write the letter (a) or (b), which are located at the end of each clause, in the correct column.

1. Although the organization owns its Minneapolis Hub (a), its transportation costs are still on the increase (b).

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

2. Pilots are highly trained professionals (a) who fly airplanes and helicopters to carry out a wide variety of tasks (b).

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

3. The captain is in command and supervises all other crewmembers (a).

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

4. They finally decided (a) which musician was best (b).

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

5. Pilots choose a route, altitude, and speed (a) that will provide the fastest, safest, and smoothest flight (b).

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

6. Unless the weather is bad (a), the actual flight is relatively easy (b) as a rule (c).

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

7. Takeoff and landing are the most difficult functions of a flight (a) because they require close coordination between the pilot and first officer (b).

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

8. What you see (a) is not always reality (b).

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

9. We deliver third party management and consulting solutions for manufacturers in every industry (a).

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

10. When you make a critical remark in an email (a), be sure to choose your words carefully (b).

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

11. You could be mistaken about the performance assessment (a) that you wrote on Bill. (b)

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

12. Unless an email has all the elements of a business letter, (a) it is unacceptable in the business environment. (b)

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

13. When you write a letter of commendation to an employee, (a) you should include the complete name and address of the person. (b)

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

14. Proudly, she presented the accomplishments of her Company (a) to a new client. (b)

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

15. It is your responsibility to respond to letters of complaint (a) because you are the Customer Relations Officer. (b)

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

16. When you write in a letter of complaint, (a) be sure to stick to the facts. (b)

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

17. That email is not officially accepted by some business people (a) creates serious delays in our corporation.

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

18. Unfortunately, email messages are not taken as seriously as business letters. (a)

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

19. The main problem with most email is that often it cannot include signatures. (a)

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

20. Although email is used widely in most corporations, (a) it is not taken as seriously as letters. (b)

Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

Answer Key

Kinds of Clauses

1. Although the organization owns its Minneapolis Hub (a), its transportation costs are still on the increase (b).

Adjective clause –

Adverb clause – a

Noun clause –

Independent clause – b

No clause –

2. Pilots are highly trained professionals (a) who fly airplanes and helicopters to carry out a wide variety of tasks (b).

Adjective clause – b

Adverb clause –

Noun clause –

Independent clause -a

No clause –

3. The captain is in command and supervises all other crewmembers (a).

Adjective clause –

Adverb clause –

Noun clause –

Independent clause -a

No clause –

4. They finally decided (a) which musician was best (b).

Adjective clause – b

Adverb clause –

Noun clause –

Independent clause – a

No clause –

5. Pilots choose a route, altitude, and speed (a) that will provide the fastest, safest, and smoothest flight (b).

Adjective clause – b

Adverb clause –

Noun clause –

Independent clause -a

No clause –

6. Unless the weather is bad (a), the actual flight is relatively easy (b) as a rule (c).

Adjective clause –

Adverb clause -a

Noun clause –

Independent clause -b

No clause –c

7. Takeoff and landing are the most difficult functions of a flight (a) because they require close coordination between the pilot and first officer (b).

Adjective clause –

Adverb clause -b

Noun clause –

Independent clause -a

No clause –

8. What you see (a) is not always reality (b).

Adjective clause –

Adverb clause –

Noun clause -a

Independent clause – b

No clause –

9. We deliver third party management and consulting solutions for manufacturers in every industry (a).

Adjective clause –

Adverb clause –

Noun clause –

Independent clause -a

No clause –

10. When you make a critical remark in an email (a), be sure to choose your words carefully (b).

Adjective clause –

Adverb clause -a

Noun clause –

Independent clause -b

No clause –

11. You could be mistaken about the performance assessment (a) that you wrote on Bill. (b)

Adjective clause –   b

Adverb clause –

Noun clause –

Independent clause -a

No clause –

12. Unless an email has all the elements of a business letter, (a) it is unacceptable in the business environment. (b)

Adjective clause –

Adverb clause -a

Noun clause –

Independent clause -b

No clause –

13. When you write a letter of commendation to an employee, (a) you should include the complete name and address of the person. (b)

Adjective clause –

Adverb clause -a

Noun clause –

Independent clause -b

No clause –

14. Proudly, she presented the accomplishments of her Company (a) to a new client. (b)

Adjective clause –

Adverb clause –

Noun clause –

Independent clause -a

No clause – b

15. It is your responsibility to respond to letters of complaint (a) because you are the Customer Relations Officer. (b)

Adjective clause –

Adverb clause -b

Noun clause –

Independent clause -a

No clause –

16. When you write in a letter of complaint,  (a) be sure to stick to the facts. (b)

Adjective clause –

Adverb clause -a

Noun clause –

Independent clause -b

No clause –

17. That email is not officially accepted by some business people a) creates serious delays in our corporation.

Adjective clause –

Adverb clause –

Noun clause -a

Independent clause –

No clause –

18. Unfortunately, email messages are not taken as seriously as business letters. (a)

Adjective clause –

Adverb clause –

Noun clause –

Independent clause -a

No clause –

19. The main problem with most email is that often it cannot include signatures. (a)

Adjective clause –

Adverb clause –

Noun clause -a

Independent clause –

No clause –

20. Although email is used widely in most corporations, (a) it is not taken as seriously as letters. (b)

Adjective clause –

Adverb clause -a

Noun clause –

Independent clause -b

No clause –