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Subordinating Conjunctions - Level III

Subordinating Conjunctions

Notes

Conjunctions are words used to connect single words, phrases, clauses and sentences.

Coordinating Conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions connect single words, phrases or independent clauses of equal weight. They are: and, or, but, nor, for, so, yet
Example:
Michael and Geoff are our grandsons. (The coordinating conjunction ‘and’ connects the compound subject ‘Michael’ and ‘Geoff’.)

Correlative Conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs to link single words, phrases or independent clauses of equal weight. They are:
both … and
either … or
neither … nor
not only … but also
whether … or
just as … so

Example:
Not only does the rain come in spring but also the drought follows in summer. (The correlative conjunctions ‘not only’ … ‘but also’ link two independent clauses.)

Conjunctive Adverbs
Conjunctive adverbs join and relate independent clauses. The most commonly used conjunctive adverbs are:

accordingly furthermore meanwhile similarly
also hence moreover still
anyway however nevertheless then
besides incidentally next thereafter
certainly indeed nonetheless therefore
consequently thus instead now
finally likewise otherwise undoubtedly

Example:
The news about John was discouraging, consequently, we went to console his wife. (The conjunctive adverb joins and relates two independent clauses.)

Subordinating Conjunctions
Subordinating conjunctions introduce adverb dependent/subordinate clauses and connect them with the main/independent clause. These conjunctions include:

after although as as if
as though because before even though
if in order that now that once
rather than since so that that
though unless until when
whenever where wherever while

Example:
Even though, it is very hot we walk for over an hour every morning. (The subordinate conjunction ‘even though’ introduces the subordinate clause ‘it is very hot’.)

Subordinating Conjunctions which may introduce noun clauses are: whether, when, where, why, how

Relative Pronouns
Relative pronouns introduce adjective and noun clauses in a sentence.
The relative pronouns are: that, what, whatever, which, who (whom, whose), whoever (whomever)
Example:
What really bothered us was the traffic noise. (The relative pronoun ‘what’ introduces the noun clause ‘what really bothered us’. The clause serves as subject of the sentence.)

Relative pronouns: that, what, whatever, which, who (whom, whose), whoever (whomever)

Assignment

Identify the subordinating conjunctions and place them in the correct column.

1. Public health is the responsibility of both the Federal and State Governments.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

2. Whatever happens it is likely to be better than the present situation.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

3. While fishing on the West Coast, Bill caught a large salmon.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

4. The company was in serious financial difficulty; therefore the banker chose to cancel the line of credit.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

5. After finishing his assignment and having a snack, John went out with his friends.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

6. The young parents have experienced many changes in their daily routines since they had twins.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

7. Either one or the other twin needs attention most of the time.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

8. We knew that our visit would have to be short. Nevertheless, we decided to take the trip.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

9. Get ready immediately if you want to catch your flight.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

10. Anybody who wants to come to the party is welcome.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

11. You have five minutes to get ready, no more, so start right now.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

12. Whether she comes or not, Janet will be thinking of us.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

13. I do not know whether she will be at the conference.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

14. It is usually better to plan and organize an assignment before you begin to write.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

15. Whatever you do, don’t go river rafting! It is dangerous.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

16. When I am at the lake, I go swimming even though the weather is cool.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

17. My parents’ home is not only well maintained but also attractive.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

18. Although I washed my shirt with detergent and bleach, it still has coffee stains on it.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

19. Anne never wanted to live in Alaska because the winters are not only long but also severe.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

20. The young man, whose short story I evaluated for the competition, is an outstanding student.

Correlative Relative Conjunctive Subordinating

Answer Key

Subordinating Conjunctions

1. Public health is the responsibility of both Federal and State Governments.

Answer – both – correlative

Answer – and – correlative

2. Whatever happens it is likely to be better than the present situation.

Answer –  Whatever – relative pronoun

3. While fishing on the West Coast, Bill caught a large salmon.

Answer –    While – subordinating

4. The company was in serious financial difficulty; therefore the banker chose to cancel the line of credit.

Answer – therefore – conjunctive adverb

5. After finishing his assignment and having a snack, John went out with his friends.

Answer –     After – subordinating

Answer – and – coordinating

6. The young parents have experienced many changes in their daily routines since they had twins.

Answer – since – coordinating

7. Either one or the other twin needs attention most of the time.

Answer –     Either – correlative

Answer – or – correlative

8. We knew that our visit would have to be short. Nevertheless, we decided to take the trip.

Answer –  that – relative pronoun

Answer – Nevertheless – conjunctive adverb

9. Get ready immediately if you want to catch your flight.

Answer –    if – subordinating

10. Anybody who wants to come to the party is welcome.

Answer – who – relative pronoun

11. You have five minutes to get ready, no more, so start right now.

Answer – so – coordinating

12. Whether she comes or not Janet will be thinking of us.

Answer –    Whether – correlative

Answer – or – correlative

13. I do not know whether she will be at the conference.

Answer – whether – subordinating

14. It is usually better to plan and organize an assignment before you begin to write.

Answer –    and – coordinating

Answer – before – subordinating

15. Whatever you do, don’t go river rafting! It is dangerous.

Answer – Whatever – relative pronoun

16. When I am at the lake, I go swimming even though the weather is cool.

Answer –     When – subordinating

Answer – even though – subordinating

17. My parents’ home is not only well maintained but also attractive.

Answer –  not only – correlative

Answer – but also – correlative

18. Although I washed my shirt with detergent and bleach, it still has coffee stains on it.

Answer – Although – subordinating

Answer – and – coordinating

19. Anne never wanted to live in Alaska because the winters are not only long but also severe.

Answer –    because – subordinating

Answer – but – correlative

Answer – also – correlative

20. The young man, whose short story I evaluated for the competition, is an outstanding student.

Answer –     whose – relative pronoun