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Negatives

Negatives

Notes

Negative adverbs and adjectives make verbs express ideas which are directly opposite to the regular meaning of the verbs. They express negative ideas.

The negative adverbs are: not never, rarely, seldom, hardly (ever), scarcely (ever), barely (ever)

No‘ can function as an adverb or adjective.
1. ‘Not ’ immediately follows an auxiliary verb or the verb ‘be’. If there is more that one auxiliary verb, ‘not’ comes immediately after the first auxiliary.
Examples:

  • He will not be coming home. (future progressive tense)
  • He has not been coming home. (present perfect progressive tense)
  • I am not coming home. (present tense)
  • I was not coming home. (past progressive tense)

2. ‘Do’ or ‘does’ is used with not to make a simple present verb (except ‘be ’) negative.
‘Did’ is used with ‘not’ to make a simple past tense verb (except ‘be ’) negative.
Examples:

  • He does not go to school. (present tense)
  • I do not go to school. (present tense)
  • I did not go to school. (past tense)
  • He did not go to school. (past tense)

3. Never, rarely, seldom, hardly (ever), scarcely (ever), barely (ever) are used to express negative ideas.
Examples:

  • I almost never go to the beach.
  • I have hardly ever gone to the beach.
  • She seldom comes to visit.

4. Comparing ‘no’ and ‘not ’
‘Not’ is used to make the verb negative. ‘No’ can be used as an adjective modifying a noun. ’No ’ can also be used as an adverb.
Examples:

  • I do not have sisters. (The adverb ‘not’ makes the verb negative.)
  • I have no sisters. (The adjective ‘no’ modifies the noun ‘sisters’.)
  • I have no money. (The adjective ‘no’ modifies the noun ‘money’.)

5. Avoid double negatives.
One clause should contain only one negative. Negatives in two different clauses cause no problem.
Examples:

  • Incorrect: I do not have no sisters. (There are two negatives in one clause.)
  • Correct: I have no sisters. (There is one negative in an independent clause.)
  • Correct: I do not have any sisters. (There is one negative in an independent clause. ‘Any’ is an adjective modifying the noun ‘sisters’.)

Assignment

Enter the numbers in the correct columns.

1. There are (1) (2) mountains in Nebraska.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

2. I will (1) (2) do that again because it is too dangerous.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

3. (1) (2) (3) have I tasted such well prepared food.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

4. My family almost (1) goes to Texas in the heat of summer.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

5. I do not have (1) vacation time this year because I took time off after breaking my leg.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

6. There is (1) reasonable defence for his behavior.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

7. The baby is (1) (2) (3) (4) old enough to sit up.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

8. Young children (1) (2) (3) (4) like to go to bed without a favorite toy.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

9. Jack (1) only spends time at the lake but he has also become an avid fisherman.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

10. At this point in time, human memory can (1) be upgraded as easily as the memory of a computer.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

11. (1) single memory-enhancement procedure works for everyone.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

12. The same memory-enhancements procedures (1) (2) (3) (4) are effective for everybody.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

13. Human memory (1) (2) (3) (4) handles more than seven new items of information at once.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

14. Powerful memories related to smell are (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) forgotten.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

15. Humans do (1) (2) remember bits and pieces of unrelated information well.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

16. Brain studies show that most people (1) (2) (3) (4) forget tragic experiences.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

17. Sometimes I do not get (1) responses when I ask difficult questions.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

18. Increase consumption of vitamin E and uncooked vegetables (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) improves memory.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

19. (1) simple change in diet is likely to improve memory to any extent.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

20. Distraction, depression, and sleeping pills are (1) (2) (3) (4) effective memory boosters.

no not never seldom rarely barely hardly No negative

Answer Key

Negatives

1. There are (1) (2) mountains in Nebraska.

Answer – 1 – no

Answer – 2 – no negative

2. I will (1) (2) do that again because it is too dangerous.

Answer –  1 – not

Answer – 2 – never

3. (1) (2) (3) have I tasted such well prepared food.

Answer –    1 – never

Answer – 2 – seldom

Answer – 3 – rarely

4. My family almost (1) goes to Texas in the heat of summer.

Answer – 1 – never

5. I do not have (1) vacation time this year because I took time off after breaking my leg.

Answer –     1 – no

6. There is (1) reasonable defense for his behavior.

Answer – 1- no

7. The baby is (1) (2) (3) (4) old enough to sit up.

Answer –     1- not

Answer – 2 – barely

Answer – 3 – hardly

Answer – 4 – no negative

8. Young children (1) (2) (3) (4) like to go to bed without a favorite toy.

Answer –  1 – never

Answer – 2 – seldom

Answer – 3 – rarely

Answer – 4 – no negative

9. Jack (1) only spends time at the lake but he has also become an avid fisherman.

Answer –    1 – not

10. At this point in time, human memory can (1) (2) be upgraded as easily as the memory of a computer.

Answer – 1 – not

11. (1) single memory-enhancement procedure works for everyone.

Answer – 1 – no

12. The same memory-enhancements procedures (1) (2) (3) (4) are effective for everybody.

Answer –    1 – never

Answer – 2 – seldom

Answer – 3 – rarely

Answer – 4 – no negative

13. Human memory (1) (2) (3) (4) handles more than seven new items of information at once.

Answer –    1 – never

Answer – 2 – seldom

Answer – 3 – rarely

Answer – 4 – no negative

14. Powerful memories related to smell are (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) forgotten.

Answer –    1 – not

Answer –    2 – never

Answer – 3 – seldom

Answer – 4 – rarely

Answer – 5 – no negative

15. Humans do (1) (2) remember bits and pieces of unrelated information well.

Answer – 2- not

Answer – no negative

16. Brain studies show that most people (1) (2) (3) (4) forget tragic experiences.

Answer –     1 – never

Answer – 2 – seldom

Answer – 3 – rarely

Answer – 4 – no negative

17. Sometimes I do not get (1) responses when I ask difficult questions.

Answer –  1- no negative

18. Increase consumption of vitamin E and uncooked vegetables (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) improves memory.

Answer – –     1 – never

Answer – 2 – seldom

Answer – 3 – rarely

Answer – 4 – hardly

Answer – 5 – no negative

19. (1) simple change in diet is likely to improve memory to any extent.

Answer –  1- no

20. Distraction, depression, and sleeping pills are (1) (2) (3) (4) effective memory boosters.

Answer –    1- not

Answer – 2 – seldom

Answer – 3 – rarely

Answer – 4 – no negative