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Arts & Letters Daily

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Noun

     Dr. Otto
Nouns – singular and plural
Nouns probably cause you the least problems … they simply refer to persons, places or things that are part of your everyday life. When you refer to …
YouTube Tutorial – click INTRODUCTION /OR APPLICATION
Text for Tutorial on APPLICATION  – click HERE.
Notes – scroll down to Notes
Assignment – scroll down to Assignment
Answer Key – scroll down to Answer Key
Practice oral English – click HERE
ASK DR. OTTO – click HERE

Notes

 

Nouns are used in every day conversation and writing. No sentence is complete without at least one noun. There are two classes of nouns: common nouns and proper nouns. For example, use the common noun, girl, when you write about females in general. Do not capitalize common nouns. Use a proper noun when you write about a specific girl, Jane. Capitalize proper nouns.

When you want to write about a particular person, place or thing, use singular nouns. For example, use the singular form ‘girl’ to refer to one girl. When you want to write about more than one girl, use the plural form ‘girls’. Add the letter ‘s’ to the word ‘girl’ to form the plural. Use different rules to make the plural form depending on the spelling of the singular noun. Here are some of the rules.

 

Common Noun

A noun is the name of any one of a class of persons, places, things, ideas, actions or qualities. Common nouns are not capitalized.

Examples: teacher, city, car, tiger, lily, desk, book.

 

Forming Plurals

Rule 1. Most nouns form the plural by adding an  ‘s’

  • Singular: book    pen    eraser    desk    chair
  • Plural:    books   pens   erasers  desks   chairs

Rule 2. Nouns ending with a vowel and ‘y’ form the plural by adding an ’s’

  • Singular:  boy     day     key
  • Plural:      boys   days    keys

Rule 3. Nouns ending in ‘ss’, ’ch, ‘sh’, ‘s’, or ‘x’ form the plural by adding ‘es’

  • Singular:  class      watch       dish      gas      box
  • Plural:      classes   watches   dishes   gases   boxes

Rule 4. Some nouns ending in ‘o’ form the plural by adding ‘es’, but some add

only ‘s’

  • Singular:   photo     piano     hero      potato
  • Plural:      photos    pianos    heroes   potatoes

Rule 5. Nouns ending in a consonant plus ‘y’ form the plural by changing the ‘y’ to ‘i’ and adding ‘es’

  • Singular:   country     party       lady      factory      baby
  • Plural:       countries   parties    ladies    factories    babies

Rule 6. Some common nouns have irregular plurals

  • Singular: child man    woman    foot    tooth    mouse
  • Plural:     children    men    women    feet    teeth     mice

Rule 7. Other Irregular plural

scissors,   shears,   pliers,   scales,  glasses,   jeans,   pyjamas,    pants,    tights

Example: Pliers are helpful tools. (‘Pliers’ is a plural noun, and ‘are’ is the plural form of the verb.)

Assignment

Underline the rule that applies to the noun underlined in each sentence.

1. My sister has three children.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

2. My aunt has two boys and a girl.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

3. Babies often smile at people.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

4. Potatoes and carrots are common vegetables.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

5. Please put the picnic dishes in two boxes.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

6. A cousin of mine sells pianos for a large company.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

7. We read two newspapers every day.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

8. Many men work in industrial factories.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

9. Most children wear t-shirts in gym classes.

  • Add ‘s
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

10. I have white teeth because I brush them every day.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

11. We drink from plastic glasses at the beach.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

12. Churches are usually beautiful large buildings.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

13. Boys and girls like candies for a treat.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

14. Addresses on letters must be printed clearly.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Ass ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

15. The cat was chasing mice in the barn.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

16. I had blisters on both feet after wearing my new shoes.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘I’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

17. My friend has visited over eight countries.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

18. Women are more likely to work at home than men.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

19. Heroes are respected by most teen-agers.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

20. Cards and darts are games I like to play.

  • Add ‘s’
  • Add ‘es’
  • Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’
  • Irregular plural

Answer Key

Nouns

1. My sister has three children.

Answer : children –  Irregular plural

2. My aunt has two boys and a girl.

Answer: boys  – add ‘s’

3. Babies often smile at people.

Answer: Babies – Change ‘y’ to ‘I’ and add ‘es’

4. Potatoes and carrots are common vegetables.

Answer: Carrots – add ‘s’

5. Please put the picnic dishes in two boxes.

Answer: Dishes – add ‘es’

6. A cousin of mine sells pianos for a large company.

Answer: Pianos – add ‘s’

7. We read two newspapers every day.

Answer : newspapers – add ‘s’

8. Many men work in industrial factories.

Answer: Men – Irregular plural

9. Most children wear t-shirts in gym classes.

Answer: Children – Irregular plural

10. I have white teeth because I brush them every day.

Answer: Teeth –  Irregular plural

11. We drink from plastic glasses at the beach.

Answer: :Glasses – add ‘es’

12. Churches are usually beautiful large buildings.

Answer: Buildings – add ‘s’

13. Boys and girls like candies for a treat.

Answer: candies – Change ‘y’ to ‘I’ and add ‘es’

14. Addresses on letters must be printed clearly.

Answer: Addresses – add ‘es’

15. The cat was chasing mice in the barn.

Answer: Mice – Change ‘y’ to ‘I’ and add ‘es’

16. I had blisters on both feet after wearing my new shoes.

Answer: Feet – Irregular plural

17. My friend has visited over eight countries.

Answer: countries- Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘es’

18. Women are more likely to work at home than men.

Answer – Women – Irregular plural

19. Heroes are respected by most teen-agers.

Answer: Heroes – add ‘es’

20. Cards and darts are games I like to play.

Answer: Games – add ‘s’