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Arts & Letters Daily

QuickBooks

Phrases - Level II

Notes

A phrase is a group of related words that does not have a subject or a predicate.

 

Types of Phrases
There are four types of phrases

  • Verb Phrase
    A verb phrase includes a verb and auxiliary word(s) to show action or a state of being in a sentence or clause.
    Example: It has been raining for three consecutive days. (‘Has been raining’ is the verb phrase and the auxiliary words are ‘has been’.)

 

  • Noun Phrase
    A noun Phrase includes a noun and its modifiers (adjectives and articles).
    Example: The historic bridge was destroyed by the flood. (‘Historic bridge’ is the noun phrase and ‘historic’ is an adjective.)

 

  • Prepositional Phrase
    A prepositional Phrase is made up of a preposition, its object and any related modifiers.
    Example: The historic bridge was destroyed by the flood. (‘By the flood’ is a prepositional phrase. The preposition is ‘by’ and the object of the preposition is ‘flood’.)

–       Prepositional phrase as an adjective
Example: The flood of the century destroyed many homes in Grand Forks. (‘Of the century’ is a prepositional phrase that serves as an adjective modifying the noun ‘flood’.)

–       Prepositional phrase as an adverb
Example: The historic bridge was destroyed by the flood. (‘By the flood’ is a prepositional phrase that serves as an adverb modifying the verb ‘destroyed’.)

 

  • Verbal Phrase
    Verbal Phrases are made up of a verbal (participle, gerund or infinitive) and any objects or modifiers.

–       Gerund – verb ending in ‘ing’ and used as a noun.
Example: Writing an exam is not always easy. (‘Writing an exam’ is a verbal phrase and ‘Writing’ is a gerund acting as the subject of the verb ‘is’.)

–       Participle – used as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun. Most verbs have a present participle (ending in ‘ing’) and a past participle (ending in ‘d’ or ‘ed’). running shoe; crowded bus.
Example: Wading through numerous journal articles, I reviewed the most recent research on cognitive development of adolescents. (‘Wading’ is the participle. ‘Wading through numerous journal articles’ is a present participle phrase modifying the pronoun ‘I’.)

Infinitive – can be used as an adjective, adverb or noun. It is composed of a verb preceded by the word ‘to’.
Example: To write concisely is a real challenge. (‘To write’ is the infinitive. ‘To write concisely’ is an infinitive phrase acting as subject of the sentence.)

–       Example: Betty was the first person in her family to attend college. (‘To attend’ is an infinitive. ‘To attend college’ is an infinitive phrase that serves as an adjective modifying the noun ‘person’.)

Assignment

Write the phrases used in the sentences in the correct places in the chart.

1. Katie Dean wrote an interesting article, Laptop Proposal in Limbo, about a plan to introduce laptops in Middle Schools in the United States.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

2. This article is published online at http://www.wired.com/news.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

3. Angus King, Governor, presented a Proposal to provide laptops for all 17,000 seventh-graders in the state of Maine.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

4. The State Legislature decided to study the issue and then to make a recommendation about the laptop project.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

5. The Task Force will review technology training, hardware purchases and after-school technology centers.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

6. Some people were concerned that seventh-graders are not mature enough to manage the laptops.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

7. Textile producer, Guilford of Maine, announced that the company would provide $100,000 over the next two years to purchase laptops.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

8. Does a high-tech school district attract high-tech businesses?

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

9. The district’s long-term goal is to provide laptops for grades 3-12 students over the next three years.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

10. One School Division piloted a laptop program with considerable success for Senior 4 students.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

11. The goal of the Program was to enable students to think and write independently.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

12. The students’ portfolios in the pilot and control groups were analyzed on the basis of  Bob Marzano’s criteria.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

13. The criteria included acquiring and integrating knowledge and extending and refining knowledge.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

14. After the intervention period, a professor at the University analyzed the student’s writing folders.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

15. In the post-test, students in the pilot group scored higher than students in the control group.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

16. The pilot group demonstrated higher levels of thinking than the control group.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

17. How have other students in the school where the pilot study was conducted responded?

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

18. Students expressed appreciation for the opportunity to use laptops every day.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

19.  Students using laptops do not necessarily show significant improvement in writing.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

20. However, laptops can provide students with ready access to tools required for research and writing.

Adjective prepositional phrase
Adverb prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Verb phrase
Verbal phrase

Answer Key

Phrases

1. Katie Dean wrote an interesting article, Laptop Proposal in Limbo, about a plan to introduce laptops in Middle Schools in the United States.

Answer – an interesting article – noun phrase

Answer – to introduce – verbal phrase

Answer – in the United States – adverb prepositional phrase

2. This article is published online at http://www.wired.com/news.

Answer – is published – verb phrase

Answer – at http://www.wired.com/news – adverb prepositional phrase

3. Angus King, Governor, presented a Proposal to provide laptops for all 17,000 seventh-graders in the state of Maine.

Answer –    to provide laptops – verbal phrase

Answer – for all 17,000 seventh-graders – adjective prepositional phrase

Answer – in the state of Maine – adverb prepositional phrase

4. The State Legislature decided to study the issue and then to make a recommendation about the laptop project.

Answer – to study the issue – verbal phrase

Answer – to make a recommendation – verbal phrase

Answer – about the laptop project – adjective prepositional phrase

5. The Task Force will review technology training, hardware purchases and after-school technology centers.

Answer –     technology training – noun phrases

Answer – hardware purchases – noun phrases

Answer – after-school technology centers – noun phrases

6. Some people were concerned that seventh-graders are not mature enough to manage the laptops.

Answer – Some people – noun phrase

Answer – to manage the laptops – verbal phrase

7. Textile producer, Guilford of Maine, announced that the company would provide $100,000 over the next two years to purchase laptops.

Answer –     Textile producer – noun phrase

Answer – would provide – verb phrase

Answer – over the next two years – adverb prepositional phrase

Answer – to purchase laptops – verbal phrase

8. Does a high-tech school district attract high-tech businesses?

Answer – high-tech school district – noun phrase

Answer – high-tech businesses – noun phrase

9. The district’s long-term goal is to provide laptops for grades 3-12 students over the next three years.

Answer –  district’s long-term goal – noun phrase

Answer –   to provide laptops – verbal phrase

Answer – for grades 3-12 students – adjective prepositional phrase

Answer – over the next three years – adverb prepositional phrase

10. One School Division piloted a laptop program with considerable success for Senior 4 students.

Answer – One School Division – noun phrase

Answer – a laptop program – noun phase

Answer – for Senior 4 students – adjective prepositional phrase

Answer – with considerable success – adverb prepositional phrase

11. The goal of the Program was to enable students to think and write independently.

Answer – of the Program – adjective prepositional phrase

Answer – to enable students – verbal phrase

Answer – to think and write independently – verbal phrase

12. The students’ portfolios in the pilot and control groups were analyzed on the basis of  Bob Marzano’s criteria.

Answer –    The students’ portfolios – noun phrase

Answer – in the pilot and control groups – adjective prepositional phrase

Answer – were analyzed – verb phrase

Answer – on the basis – adverb prepositional phrase

Answer – of  Bob Marzano’s criteria – adjective prepositional phrase

13. The criteria included acquiring and integrating knowledge and extending and refining knowledge.

Answer – acquiring and integrating knowledge – verbal phrase

Answer – extending and refining knowledge – verbal phrase

14. After the intervention period, a professor at the University analyzed the student’s writing folders.

Answer –    After the intervention period – adverb prepositional phrase

Answer – the student’s writing folders – noun phrase

15. In the post-test, students in the pilot group scored higher than students in the control group.

Answer – In the post-test – adverb prepositional phrase

Answer – in the pilot group – adjective prepositional phrase

Answer – in the control group – adjective prepositional phrase

16. The pilot group demonstrated higher levels of thinking than the control group.

Answer –   The pilot group – noun phrase

Answer –   of thinking – adjective prepositional phrase

Answer – the control group – noun phrase

17. How have other students in the school where the pilot study was conducted responded?

Answer –  other students – noun phrase

Answer – in the school – adjective prepositional phrase

Answer- was conducted – verb phrase

18. Students expressed appreciation for the opportunity to use laptops every day.

Answer – for the opportunity – adverb prepositional phrase

Answer – to use laptops every day – verbal phrase

19.  Students using laptops do not necessarily show significant improvement in writing.

Answer –  using laptops – verbal phrase

Answer – do not necessarily show – verb phrase

Answer – significant improvement – noun phrase

Answer – in writing – adjective prepositional phrase

20. However, laptops can provide students with ready access to tools required for research and writing.

Answer –  can provide – verb phrase

Answer –    to tools – adjective prepositional phrase

Answer – for research and writing – adjective prepositional phrase