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Pronouns - Level III

Pronouns

Notes

Pronouns are words used in place of nouns so that the nouns do not have to be repeated. There are five types of pronouns: personal, interrogative, demonstrative, indefinite and relative pronouns. Pronouns must agree in gender, number and case with the nouns they stand for.
Personal Pronouns: are pronouns that stand for the person speaking (first person), the person spoken to (second person), or the person or thing spoken of (third person). In their possessive form, personal pronouns are called possessive adjectives.
Interrogative Pronouns: are pronouns used to ask questions. They are: who, (whose, whom), which, and what. As well as asking questions, interrogative pronouns can function as the subject of a sentence, object of the verb or object of a preposition. Interrogative pronouns may also serve as adjectives modifying a noun (Chart 1).
Examples:
Who is at the door? (‘Who’ is the subject of the sentence.)
For whom are you waiting? (‘Whom’ is object of the preposition ‘for’.)
What did he do about the problem? (‘What’ is object of the verb ‘do’.)
Which books belong to you? (‘Which’ serves as an adjective modifying ‘ books’)

Interrogative Pronouns Gender Mas. Gender Fem Gender Neut. No. Sing. No. Plural Case Subj. Case Obj. Case Poss.
Who * * * * *
Whom * * * * *
What * * * * *
Which * * * * * *
Whose * * * * * *

Chart 1.  Interrogative Pronouns

Demonstrative Pronouns: are pronouns that point out specific persons, places, or things. There are four demonstrative pronouns: this – singular; these – plural; that – singular; and those – plural. Demonstrative pronouns may also serve as adjectives modifying nouns. Therefore, demonstrative pronouns do not take the possessive case (Chart 2).
Examples:
This is my book. (Reference to a specific book.)
These are my notes. (Reference to specific notes.)
That is John’s car. (Reference to a specific car.)
Those are Mary’s boots. (Reference to specific boots.)
These children go to school. (‘These’ acts as an adjective modifying the noun ‘children’. ‘These’ does not take the possessive case.)

Demonstrative Pronouns Gender Mas. Gender Fem Gender Neut. No. Sing. No. Plural CaseSubj. Case Obj. Case Poss.
this * * *
these * * * * * *
that * * *
those * * * * * *

Chart 2. Demonstrative Pronouns

Relative Pronouns: are pronouns that join subordinate clauses with the main clause. The antecedent of the relative pronoun is found in the main clause. The relative pronouns are: ‘who’, used to refer to people, ‘that’, used to refer to things or people, and ‘which’, used to refer to things (Chart 3)
Examples:
Mary is the student who won the scholarship. (‘Who’ refers to ‘Mary’ and introduces the subordinate clause ‘who won the scholarship’.)
This is the car, which was stolen. (‘This’ is a demonstrative pronoun referring to a specific car. ‘Which refers to the noun ‘car’ and introduces the subordinate clause, ‘which was stolen’.)

Relative Pronouns Gender Mas. Gender Fem Gender Neut. No. Sing. No. Plural Case Subj. Case Obj. Case Poss.
who * * * * *
that * * * * *
which * * * * *

Chart 3. Relative Pronouns

Indefinite Pronouns: are called indefinite because they do not refer to specific places, persons or things. When Indefinite Pronouns refer to or have other pronouns as antecedents and where the gender is not clear the masculine form of the pronoun is used (Chart 4).
Example:
Everyone received his/her report card. (The pronouns “his/hers” refer to everyone therefore both male and female are included. If the gender is clearly female, then “hers’ is the correct pronoun. If the gender is clearly male, then “his’ is the correct pronoun.)

Indefinite Pronous Gender Mas. Gender Fem Gender Neut. No. Sing. No. Plural Case Subj. Case Obj. Case Poss.
all * * * *
any * * * *
anybody anyone * * * * *
anything * * * *
both * * * * * *
each * * * * * *
each one * * * * * *
each other * * * *
either * * * * * *
everybody everyone * * * * *
everything * * * *
few * * * * * *
many * * * * * *
neither * * * * *
nobody  one * * * * *
none * * * * * *
nothing * * * *
one * * * * * * *
one another * * * * *
other * * * *
others * * * * * *
several * * * * * *
some * * * * * *
somebody someone * * * * *
something * * * *

Chart 4. Common Indefinite Pronouns

Assignment

  • Write the pronouns in the first column
  • Check the cell that describes the pronoun

1. She is my sister’s friend.

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

2. You should work with me on something related to that project.

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

3. These pictures belong to me. Which ones are his?

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

4. Someone’s pen is on my desk. Whose is it?

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

5. What was your mother’s maiden name?

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

6. Somebody should do something about this untenable situation.

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

7. If this baseball cap is yours, which one is mine?

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

8. The heart of the city itself was destroyed by fire. No one has assumed responsibility for it.

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

9. Everyone attending the Women’s Club meeting presented her membership card.

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

10.  You will gain nothing by reporting that incident to the authorities.

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

11.  Those employees, standing in the office, were waiting for their pay cheques. All the employees have families to feed.

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

12.  These damaged books belong to her. She will repair them herself.

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

13.  Neither of the women left her coat in this cloakroom.

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

14.  Which house is yours? This one, or that one?

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

15.  Realize your dreams. I know each of you can do that.

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

16.  Anyone could slip through that open door unnoticed.

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

17.  He is the student who won several awards.

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

18.  Few in the audience liked that music. It was too loud.

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

19.  These theatre tickets are for anyone who will reimburse me for them.

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

20.  These are the two types of touring bicycles most commonly used. Which do you prefer?

Pronouns Personal Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative

Answer Key

Pronouns

1. She is my sister’s friend.

Answer – she – Personal

Answer – my – Personal

2. You should work with me on something related to that project.

Answer – You – Personal

Answer – me – Personal

Answer –  something – Indefinite

Answer – that – Demonstrative

3. These pictures belong to me. Which ones are his?

Answer –  These – Demonstrative

Answer – me – Personal

Answer – Which – Interrogative

Answer – ones – Indefinite

Answer –  his – Personal

4. Someone’s pen is on my desk. Whose is it?

Answer – Someone – Indefinite

Answer – my – Personal

Answer – Whose – Interrogative

Answer – it – Personal

5. What was your mother’s maiden name?

Answer –   What – Interrogative

Answer –  your – Personal

6. Somebody should do something about this untenable situation.

Answer – Somebody – Indefinite

Answer – something – Indefinite

Answer – this – Demonstrative

7. If this baseball cap is yours, which one is mine?

Answer –   this – Demonstrative

Answer –  yours – Personal

Answer – which – Interrogative

Answer – one – Indefinite

Answer –   mine – Personal

8. The heart of the city itself was destroyed by fire. No one has assumed responsibility for it.

Answer –  itself – Personal

Answer – one – Indefinite

Answer – it – Personal

9. Everyone attending that Women’s Club meeting presented her membership card.

Answer –    Everyone – Indefinite

Answer – that – Demonstrative

Answer – her – Personal

10. You will gain nothing by reporting that incident to the authorities.

Answer – You – Personal

Answer – nothing – Indefinite

Answer – that – Demonstrative

11. Those employees, standing in the office, were waiting for their pay cheques. All the employees have families to feed.

Answer – Those – Demonstrative

Answer – Their – Personal

Answer – All – Indefinite

12. These damaged books belong to her. She will repair them herself.

Answer –    These – Demonstrative

Answer – her – Personal

Answer – She – Personal

Answer – herself – Personal

13. Neither of the women left her coat in this cloakroom.

Answer – Neither – Indefinite

Answer – her – Personal

Answer – this – Personal

14. Which house is yours? This one, or that one?

Answer –   Which – Interrogative

Answer – yours – Personal

Answer – This – Demonstrative

Answer – one – Indefinite

Answer – that  – Demonstrative

Answer –  one – Indefinite

15. Realize your dreams. I know each of you can do that.

Answer – your – Personal

Answer – I – Personal

Answer – each – Indefinite

Answer – you – Personal

Answer – that – Demonstrative

16. Anyone could slip through that open door unnoticed.

Answer –   Anyone –   Indefinite

Answer – that – Demonstrative

17. He is the student who won several awards.

Answer –  He – Personal

Answer – who – Interrogative

Answer – several – Indefinite

18. Few in the audience liked that music. It was too loud.

Answer – Few – Indefinite

Answer – that – Demonstrative

Answer – It – Personal

19. These theatre tickets are for anyone who will reimburse me for them.

Answer –    These – Demonstrative

Answer – anyone – Indefinite

Answer – who – Interrogative

Answer – me – Personal

Answer – them – Personal

20. These are the two types of touring bicycles most commonly used. Which do you prefer?

Answer –     These – Demonstrative

Answer – Which – Interrogative

Answer – you – Personal