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Perfect and Progressive Tenses Level II

 

Notes

1. Simple Tenses

  • Present tense – action occurs at the present time

Example: John runs.

  • Past tense – action occurred in the past

Example: John ran.

  • Future tense – action will occur in the future

Example: John will run.

2. Perfect Tenses

Perfect Tenses are formed by adding an auxiliary (‘have’, ‘had’, ‘has’, ‘shall’ and ‘will’) to the past participle form of the verb. If the sentence has compound verbs, it is not necessary to repeat the auxiliary before the second verb.

  • Present Perfect Tense – action is completed or is continuing at the time of speaking. The tense is formed by including ‘have’ or ‘has’ with the past participle of the verb.

Examples:

John has spoken to the manager.

John has called and spoken to the manager. (This sentence has compound verbs, ‘has

called’ and ‘spoken’. The auxiliary ‘has’ is not repeated before ‘spoken’.)

  • Past Perfect Tense – action that has been completed before some definite time in the past. The tense is formed by including ‘had’ with the past tense of the verb.

Example:

Before the officer arrived, the thief had disappeared.

  • Future Perfect Tense – action that will be completed at some definite time in the future. The tense is formed by including ‘shall have’ or ‘will have’ with the past tense of the verb.

Examples:

My friend will have departed before I arrive at the airport.

I shall have departed before my friend arrives at the airport.

Verb ‘call’ Present Perfect Tense – add ‘have’ or ‘has’ Past  Perfect Tense- add ‘had’ Future Perfect Tense- add ‘shall have’ or ‘will have’
First Person singular I have called I had called I shall have called
Second Person Singular You have called You had called you will have called
Third Person Singular He/she/it  has called He/she/it had called He/ she/it will have called
First Person Plural We have called We had called We shall have called
Second Person Plural You have called You had called You will have called
Third Person Plural They have called They had called They will have called

Chart 1: Present Perfect, Past Perfect, and Future Perfect Tenses of the regular verb ‘call’.

 

The verb ‘be’ is not only the most important linking verb, it is also the most irregular verb in the English Language. It should be committed to memory. Chart 2 lists the singular and plural forms of the present, past and future tenses.

Verb ‘be’ Present Tense Past Tense Future Tense
First Person singular I am I was I shall be
Second Person Singular You are You were You will be
Third Person Singular He/she/it is He/she/it was He/ she/it will be
First Person Plural We are We were We shall be
Second Person Plural You are You were You will be
Third Person Plural They are They were They will be

Chart 2: Present, Past, and Future Tenses of the verb ‘be’

Chart 3 lists the singular and plural forms of the Present Perfect, Past Perfect, and Future Perfect Tenses of the irregular verb ‘be’.

Verb ‘be’ Present Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense Future Perfect Tense
First Person singular I have been I had been I shall have been
Second Person Singular You have been You had been You will have been
Third Person Singular He/she/it has been He/she/it had been He/ she/it will have been
First Person Plural We have been We had been We shall have been
Second Person Plural You have been You had been You will have been
Third Person Plural They have been They had been They will have been

Chart 3: Present Perfect, Past Perfect, and Future Perfect Tenses of the verb ‘be’

Irregular verbs are verbs in which the past tense does not end in ‘ed’ but are formed in various ways. The most common way is to change the vowel: for example, ‘ring’ and ‘rang’. The future tense is formed by adding ‘shall’ or ‘will’ to the present tense.

Verb ‘ring’ Present Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense Future Perfect Tense
First Person singular I have rung I had rung I shall have rung
Second Person Singular You have rung You had rung You will have rung
Third Person Singular He/she/it has rung He/she/it had rung He/ she/it will have rung
First Person Plural We have rung We had rung We shall have rung
Second Person Plural You have rung You had rung You will have rung
Third Person Plural They have rung They had rung They will have rung

Chart 4: Present Perfect, Past Perfect, and Future Perfect Tenses of the Irregular verb ‘ring’

3. Progressive Tenses

Progressive tenses are special verb tenses in which action is continuing. The progressive tense is formed using a form of the verb ‘be’ with the present participle of the main verb.

When the verb ‘be’ and the words do, did, does have, had, has, shall, and will are used to make the progressive tenses they are called auxiliary verbs.

  • Present Progressive Tense – formed by including the present tense of ‘be’ with the present participle of the verb.

Example:

I am going home soon. (‘Am’ is the first person singular, present tense of the verb ’be’.

‘Going’ is the present participle of the verb ‘go’. See Chart 2)

  • Past Progressive Tense – formed by including the past tense of ‘be’ with the present participle of the verb.

Example:

He was talking on the phone for over an hour. (‘Was’ is the third person singular past

tense of the verb ’be’. ‘Talking’ is the present participle of the verb ‘go’. See Chart 2)

  • Future Progressive Tense – formed using the future tense of the verb ‘be’ and the present participle of the verb.

Example:

They will be arriving before we do. (‘Will be” is the third person plural future tense of the verb ‘be’. “Arriving’ is the present participle of the verb ‘arrive’. See Chart 2)

Verb ‘call’ Present Prog. Past Prog. Future Prog.
First Person singular I am calling I was calling I shall be calling
Second Person Singular You are calling You were calling You will be calling
Third Person Singular He/she/it is calling He/she/it was calling He/ she/it will be calling
First Person Plural We are calling We were calling We shall be calling
Second Person Plural You are calling You were calling You will be calling
Third Person Plural They are calling They were calling They will be calling

Chart 5: Progressive Tenses of the Regular Verb ‘call’

Verb ‘ring’ Present Prog. Past Prog. Future Prog.
First Person singular I am ringing I was ringing I shall be ringing
Second Person Singular You are ringing You were ringing You will be ringing
Third Person Singular He/she/ it is ringing He/she/ it was ringing He/ she/it will be ringing
First Person Plural We are ringing We were ringing We shall be ringing
Second Person Plural You are ringing You were ringing You will be ringing
Third Person Plural They are ringing They were ringing They will be ringing

Chart 6: Simple Progressive Tenses: Present, Past and Future Tenses of the Irregular Verb ‘ring’

Note: There are no progressive tenses of the verb ‘be’. Forms of the verb ‘be’ are used as auxiliary verbs along with the main verb in a sentence to make the progressive tenses.

Assignment

 

Find the verbs in each sentence and enter them in the chart below the sentence.

Note: Verbs preceded by the word ‘to’ are not verbs. They are part of an infinitive phrase.

 

1. We have fed the birds faithfully all winter as you instructed us to do.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

2. You will be feeding the birds from now on because I will be leaving for New York in a few days.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

3. The bank manager had held a meeting for all employees at the branch.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

4. The bank manager will be holding several more meetings to plan the implementation of new data base software.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

5. State politicians have fought for years to get a new bridge across the Mississippi in Memphis, Tennessee.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

6. Politicians were fighting for new legislation to protect the public.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

7. By the time we arrive in Chicago, we will have travelled over 3000 miles.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

8. The sun had not shone for several days in a row.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

9. The reporter will be reviewing her information before submitting the article to the editor.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

10. My students have read all the books on Ancient Rome located in the school library.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

11. The sophomore students will be reading about current affairs in their history class during this term.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

12. The students have known about the author’s visit for weeks.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

13. The author will have completed her book before I will meet her at the World Book Fair in New York.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

14. The fish were biting early this morning because conditions were ideal.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

15. The University Men’s Choir has sung in and won many choral competitions.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

16. John and Bill will be choosing their university courses with the help of a counsellor.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

17. Bill had chosen several biology courses but has now changed his mind.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

18. Jack will have finished his assignment before leaving for the football game.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

19. I have bought second hand books for all of my sophomore courses.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

20. You will be buying many more books before you finish college.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive

Answer Key

Perfect and Progressive Tenses

1. We have fed the birds faithfully all winter as you instructed us to do.

Answer – have fed –  Present Perfect

2. You will be feeding the birds from now on because I will be leaving for New York in a few days.

Answer – will be feeding – Future Progressive

Answer – will be leaving – Future Progressive

3. The bank manager had held a meeting for all employees at the branch.

Answer – had held – Past Perfect

4. The bank manager will be holding several more meetings to plan the implementation of new data base software.

Answer – will be holding – Future Progressive

5. State politicians have fought for years to get a new bridge across the Mississippi in Memphis, Tennessee.

Answer – have fought – Present Perfect

6. Politicians were fighting for new legislation to protect the public.

Answer – were fighting – Past Progressive

7. By the time we arrive in Chicago, we will have travelled over 3000 miles.

Answer –will have travelled –  Future Perfect

8. The sun had not shone for several days in a row.

Answer – had shone – Past Perfect

9. The reporter will be reviewing her information before submitting the article to the editor.

Answer – will be reviewing – Future Progressive

10. My students have read all the books on Ancient Rome located in the school library.

Answer –have read –  Present Perfect

11. The sophomore students will be reading about current affairs in their history class during this term.

Answer – will be reading – Future Progressive

12. The students have known about the author’s visit for weeks.

Answer – have known – Present Perfect

13. The author will have completed her book before I will meet her at the World Book Fair in New York.

Answer – will have completed – Present Progressive

14. The fish had been biting early this morning because conditions were ideal.

Answer – had been biting – Past Perfect

15. The University Men’s Choir has sung in and won many choral competitions.

Answer – has sung – Present Perfect

Answer –  won – Present Perfect

16. John and Bill will be choosing their university courses with the help of a counselor.

Answer – will be choosing – Future Progressive

17. Bill had chosen several biology courses but has now changed his mind.

Answer – had chosen – Past Perfect

Answer – has changed – Present Perfect

18. Jack will have finished his assignment before leaving for the football game.

Answer – will have finished – Future Perfect

19. I have bought second hand books for all of my sophomore courses.

Answer –have bought –  Present Perfect

20. You will be buying many more books before you finish college.

Answer – will be buying – Future Progressive