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Verbals: Gerund, Participle, Infinitive

Verbals

Notes

There are three types of verbals: participle, gerund or infinitive.

  • Gerund – verb ending in ‘ing’ and used as a noun.
    Example: Writing well isn’t always easy. (‘Writing well’ is a verbal phrase and ‘Writing’ is used as a gerund.)
  • Participle – used as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun. Most verbs have a present participle (ending in ‘ing’) and a past participle (ending in ‘d’ or ‘ed’). running shoe; crowded bus.
    Example: Wading through numerous journal articles, I reviewed the most recent research on cognitive development of adolescents. (Wading through numerous journal articles’ is a present participle phrase modifying the pronoun ‘I’.)
  • Infinitive – can be used as an adjective, adverb or noun. It is composed of a verb preceded by the word ‘to’.
    Example: To write concisely is a real challenge. (‘To write concisely’ is an infinitive phrase acting as subject of the sentence.)

Example: Betty was the first person in her family to attend college. (‘To attend college’ is an infinitive phrase that serves as an adjective modifying the noun ‘person’.)

Example: Only one question on the Math 101 Test was too difficult for me to solve. (‘To solve’ is an infinitive phrase that serves as an adverb modifying the adjective ‘difficult’.)

Assignment

Enter the verbals used in the sentences in the chart.

1. Succeeding at school is not always easy.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

2. Wandering through the mall, I found the coat I wanted to purchase.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

3. Mrs. Jones went to the grocery store to buy some fresh pastry.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

4. Thursday night is the best time for me to do my homework because I will have the house to myself.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

5. Bill’s parents were disappointed with his failing grades.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

6. Fascinated by his new toy, Johnny could not stop for lunch.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

7. Absorbed in the mystery, Sally continued to read into the night.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

8. Jim felt his car sliding down the slippery street that was covered with ice.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

9. The vacationer on the beach jumped into the cold water to save the drowning boy.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

10. Struggling against the high winds, the rescue team managed to retrieve the exhausted dog from the rushing current.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

11. All our vehicles have telephones that enable drivers to announce their arrival.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

12. Seeing is believing.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

13. Bicycle Safety Programs provide information and resources about improving pedestrian and cyclist safety.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

14. People need to walk because it improves their quality of life.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

15. Child safety seats are 70 percent effective in preventing deaths and serious injuries.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

16. Whether your flight arrives early or late, a driver will be waiting to meet you.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

17. Federal and state officials who represent the truck and bus industry are expected to testify.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

18. Although the organization owns its Minneapolis Hub, some costs continue to increase.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

19. Unfortunately, their favorite movie was not available, but the children still had fun playing games.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity
  1. Paris is clearly the place to be for a spring vacation.

20. Paris is clearly the place to be for a spring vacation.

Verbals Answer
Participle
Gerund
Infinity

Answer Key

Verbal

1, Succeeding at school is not always easy.

Answer: Gerund – Succeeding

2, Wandering through the mall, I found the coat I wanted to purchase.

Answer: Participle – Wandering

Infinitive – To purchase

3, Mrs. Jones went to the grocery store to buy some fresh pastry.

Answer: Infinitive – to buy

4, Thursday night is the best time for me to do my homework because I will have the house to myself.

Answer: Infinitive – to do

5, Bill’s parents were disappointed with his failing grades.

Answer: participle – failing

6, Fascinated by his new toy, Johnny could not stop for lunch.

Answer: Participle – Fascinated

7, Absorbed in the mystery, Sally continued to read into the night. Participle – Absorbed

Answer: Infinitive – to read

8, Jim felt his car sliding down the slippery street that was covered with ice.

Answer: Participle  – sliding

9, The vacationer on the beach jumped into the cold water to save the drowning boy.

Answer: Infinitive – to save

Participle – drowning

10.  Struggling against the high winds, the rescue team managed to retrieve the exhausted dog from the rushing current.

Answer: Participle  – Struggling

Infinitive-  to retrieve

11, All our vehicles have telephones that enable drivers to announce their arrival.

Answer: Infinitive – to announce

12, Seeing is believing.

Answer: Gerund – Seeing

Gerund- Believing

13, Bicycle Safety Programs provide information and resources about improving pedestrian and cyclist safety.

Answer: Participle  – improving

14, People need to walk because it improves their quality of life.

Answer: Infinitive – to walk

15, Child safety seats are 70 percent effective in preventing deaths and serious injuries.

Answer: participle – preventing

16, Whether your flight arrives early or late, a driver will be waiting to meet you.

Answer: Infinitive – to meet

17, Federal and state officials who represent the truck and bus industry are expected to testify.

Answer: Infinitive – to testify

18, Although the organization owns its Minneapolis Hub, some costs continue to increase.

Answer: Infinitive – to increase

19, Unfortunately, their favorite movie was not available, but the children still had fun playing games.

Answer: Participle  – playing

20, Paris is clearly the place to be for a spring vacation.

Answer: Infinitive – to be